bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
Before I go on leave....

Elisabeth Brooke. Woman Healers through History. Erhm... feminista medical history.

Jews, medicine, and medieval society by Joseph Shatzmiller -- of particular interest for the 4 page section on Women in the medical profession

Growing up in Medieval London. Barbara Hanawalt.

Ron Barkai. A History Jewish Gynaecological Texts in the Middle Ages.

Terry Comito. The Idea of the Garden in the Renaissance.

Dumberton Oakes: Garden into Art -- one of those glorious picture books with the history of the garden.

The Italian garden : art, design, and culture. by John Dixon Hunt. Lifted from Worldcat.org: Contents: Gardens in Italian literature during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries / Lucia Battaglia Ricci -- Some Medici gardens of the Florentine Renaissance: an essay in post-aesthetic interpretation / D.R. Edward Wright -- Christ the gardener and the chain of symbols: the gardens around the walls of sixteenth-century Ferrara / G. Leoni -- The gardens of villas in the Veneto from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries / Margherita Azzi Visentini -- The gardens of the Milanese villeggiatura in the mid-sixteenth century / Iris Lauterbach -- Hard times in baroque Florence: the Boboli garden and the grand ducal public works administration / Malcolm Campbell -- Fruit and flower gardens from the neoclassical and romantic periods in Tuscany / Alessandro Tosi -- Gardens and parks in Liguria in the second half of the nineteenth century / Annalisa Maniglio Calcagno -- Sicilian gardens / Gianni Pirrone -- Jappelli's gardens: "in dreams begin responsibilities" / Raymond W. Gastil.

Princely gardens : the origins and development of the French formal style by Kenneth Woodbridge -- of particular interest for descriptions of French gardens in the 1500s.
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
Herbs, Branches and Flowers, for Windows and Pots

1. Bae, sowe in January
2. Bacheler's buttens
3. Botles, blew, red, and tauney.
4. Collembines.
5. Campions.
6. Daffadondillies.
7. Eglantine, or sweete-bryer
8. Fetherfewe.
9. Flower amour, sowe in May.
10. Flower de luce.
11. Flower gentil, white and red.
12. Flower nyce.
13. Gelyflowers, red, white, and carnations, set in spring, and harvest in potts, pailles, or tubs, or for summer, in beds.
14. Holiokes, red, white, and carnations.
15. Indian eye, sowe in May or set in slips in March.
16. Lavender of all sorts.
17. Lark's foot.
18. Laus tibi.
19. Lillium cumbalium.
20. Lilies, red and white, sow or set in March and September.
21. Marigoldes, double.
22. Nigella Romana.
23. Pauncies, or hearts-ease.
34. Pragels, greene and yellowe.
25. Pinks of all sortes.
26. Queene's gilliflowers.
27. Rosemary.
28. Roses of all sorts.
29. Snap-dragons.
30. Sopps in wine.
31. Sweete Williams.
32. Sweete Johns.
33. Star of Bethelem.
34. Star of Jerusalem.
35. Stock gilleflowers of all sorts.
36. Tuft gelliflowers.
37. Velvet flowers, or Frenche marigold.
38. Violets, yellow and white.
39. Wall gelliflowers of all sorts.
-- Thomas Tusser, 1557 Floruit, His good points of husbandry, p. 153
bunnyjadwiga: (pika)
Just finished Flowers in Medieval Manuscripts (Medieval Life in Manuscripts), by Celia Fisher, University of Toronto Press (2004). This book answers all the questions I had when I was putting together our library's exhibit A Medieval Garden of Botanical Illustrations http://www.drew.edu/depts/library.aspx?id=5773

It covers the development of flower patterns in manuscripts, which countries and which artists led the styles, and what the possible meanings of flowers were in their contexts. The text itself is short, more of an essay than a book, but the pictures are oh so worth it. In our library collection, I found only the Low Country examples of botanical illumination (squashed-bug), but this book goes further into the Italian origins of the style.

The text is directed at the art historian, but it would be useful both to the student of historical gardening and plants and the illuminator. While the author does not give details about how the plants depicted would have been grown, or in fact give a complete list of plants depicted, the mere profusion of known flowers listed in the book, and the inspiration of the paintings, is helpful for those researching medieval flower types. For the illuminator, technical details of the paint colors and strokes are not available, but the discussion of why and at what time period/place illuminators chose to include specific plants-- along with the lovely examples-- is very helpful.

It would not have occurred to me, looking at the small number of manuscripts I've examined, to suspect that the illumination sheets and the decorations around the text might be by different hands in the same manuscript, but it's easy to understand in retrospect. I do think some knowledge of the history of books (though not an extensive study) is helpful in understanding the book. The author discusses the differences between books of hours and breviaries, as well as other texts, but doesn't go into detail.

The color reproduction is superb, well worth it for a book that cost me under $20 at Kalamazoo. This is definitely a book to have for garden and C&I aficionados!
bunnyjadwiga: (wunnerful)
Yes, I'm shouting.
The presenter of the first session I attended this morning had images from the altarpiece circa 1480, in the chapel of the Holy Trinity, donated by Elizabeth of Hapsburg... and, on the outer panels of the altarpiece, in a depiction of the Annunciation, there is...
a Dish Garden! yes, 3-4 separate plants in a low, wide bowl that appears to be made out of pottery. and...
NONE of them is a Lily as far as I can tell!
(There are very few depictions of multiple plants in a pot that I've been able to find, and when there are plants/flowers in Annunciation imagery, there is nearly always a lily-- lilies for virginity.)
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
The gourd too aspires to grow high from a humble beginning...
... Even so my gourd, rising on brittle stems,
Welcomes the props that are put there for it, hugging the alder
in the grip of its curly tentacles. It's so determined
Not to be wrenched away by even the wildest storm
That it thrusts out a cable at every joint and, each
Extending two strands, siezes support on this side and that.
It reminds me too of girls spinning, when they draw
The soft heaps of wool to their spindles, and in great twists
Measure off the endless thread into trim balls-- Just so
The wandering thongs of my gourd twist and cling; quick
To wrap their coils round the smooth sticks set as ladders for them
They learn to use borrowed strength and, with a swimmer's thrust,
Climb the steep rooms of the covered cloister. Oh, who now
Can praise as he ought the fruits that hang from its branches
Everywhere? They are as perfectly formed from every angle
As a piece of wood that is turned and shaved on a lathe.
They hang on a slender stalk and swell from a long, thin neck
Into huge bodies, their great mass broadening at the flanks.
They are all belly, all pauch. Inside
That cavernous prison are nourished, each in its place, the many
Seeds that promise another harvest as good as this one.
At the approach of tardy autumn, while yet they are tender
And before the hidden moisture that is sealed inside them dries
To leave but the withered shells, we often see the fruit
Handed round among the good things of the dinner-table
and soaking up the rich fat in a piping-dish;
For often these juicy slices, served as dessert,
Delight the palate. But if you let the gourd stay
Enjoying the summer sun on its parent tree and only
Set your blade to it late in the year, then after scooping
The flesh from its ponderous belly and shaving the sides
On a nimble lathe, you can put it to practical use as a vessel.
A pint this mighty paunch will sometimes hold, sometimes
Half a gallon or more; and if you seal your jar
With gummy pitch it will keep wine good for many a day.


Translated by Raef Payne. (Pittsurgh, PA: Hunt Botanical Library, 1966)
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
Reconstructing medieval pictorial narrative: Louis Joubert's tapestry restoration project
Art Journal, Summer, 1995 by Laura Weigert
http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0425/is_n2_v54/ai_17326656

Emmanuel Lutheran Church recreated medieval garden:
http://www.ilconline.org/Gardenphoto.shtml

French National Museum of the Middle Ages Garden:
http://www.musee-moyenage.fr/ang/pages/page_id17977_u1l2.htm

Mary's Gardens homepage
http://www.mgardens.org/

Mary and the Fountain in Art
http://campus.udayton.edu/mary//resources/aoeu.htm

Paradise on earth: Historical gardens of the arid Middle East
http://ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/aln36/Hamed.html
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
From
Roy Strong. Feast: A History of Grand Eating (NY: Harcourt, 2002), p. 73-75.:


What is probably the best and most complete account we have of a late medieval banquet describes the dinner given by Gaston IV, comte de Foix, at Tours in 1457. It was staged in honour of an embassy from the king of Hungary, a mission which included not only Hungarians but Germans, Bohemians and Luxemburgers. To that cosmopolitan guest list of a hundred and fifty must be added the whole of the French court. The guests were seated in strict order of precedence at twelve large tables with the host, together with the leaders of the embassy and the most important French notables, served separately, as was customary, at a high table.

The feast was exceptional, not only for the number of courses involved -- no fewer than seven -- but also for the fact that the account actually describes the food served. Up until now, such details were normally passed over in silence or, if mentioned at all, simply remarked in terms of splendour and abundance. The meal opened modestly with pieces of toast that the diner dipped into the spiced wine called hippocras, but then swiftly moved on to 'grands pates de chapons [capons],' 'jambons de sanglier [hams of wild boar],' and seven different kinds of potage, all served on silver. Each table bore a hundred and fourty silver plates, a feat of ostentation that was to be repeated in the courses that followed. Ragouts of game came next: pheasants, partridges, rabbits, peacocks, bustards, wild geese, swans, and various river birds, not to mention venison. These ragouts were accompanied by several other kinds of dishes and pottage. Then came a pause.

Although there is no reference in our account to the placement of the tables, they must have been arranged in a horseshoe forming an arena at the centre. Into that space came what was called an entremet, the first of a series. Twelve men wheeled in a castle on a rock. Whether the men were concealed inside the rock or not we do not learn, but the castle itself had four corner towers and a large keep at the centre with four windows, at each of which could be seen a richly attired lady. The central keep was adorned with heraldic banners bearing the arms of the king of Hungary and those of the other great lords who made up the embassy. At the top of each of the four towers a child sang like an angel (though what they sang we do not learn.)

After this display the feast resumed with a dish called 'oiseaux armes', which has defied definition by culinary historians, served with yet more pottages. But the real distinction of this course was that 'tout ce service fut dore' '-- all the food was apparently gilded, or at least given the appearance of being golden. Then came the second entremet: six men, dressed in the regional constume of Bearn, carried in a man disguised as a tiger wearing a collar from which was suspended the arms of the king of Hungary. The tiger spat fire and the Bearnais danced, to great applause from the onlookers.

Following a fifth course which included tarts, darioles (small moulded dishes, sweet in this case) and fried oranges, another entremet came forth. In terms of sheer spectacle this must have eclipsed everything that went before. Twenty-four men were needed to bring it into the hall, an indication as to both its size and weight. It was a mountain containing two fountains, one of which spouted rosewater, the other 'eau de muscade'. Suddenly out of this rocky promontory rabbits scampered while live birds emerged to fly around the hall. Four boys and a girl, all dressed as savages, descended to dance a morisco. Then the
count distributed largesse to the various attendant heralds of arms, the one from Hungary recieving, in addition to the two hundred e'cus bestowed on the others, a fine length of velvet.

The sixth course consisted of dessert, red hippocras served with certain kinds of wafer called 'oublies' and 'roles', after which came a final entremet. A man attired in embroidered crimson satin appeared astride a similarly caparisoned horse. In his hands he carried a model garden made of wax which was filled with roses and a variety of other flowers, and set it before the ladies (an indication that they must have been seated separately from the men). This, we are told, was the most admired of all the entremets, although what followed in the way of food as a finale must have been equally extraordinary. It involved a heraldic menagerie sculpted in sugar: lions, stags, monkeys and various other birds and beasts, each holding in beak or paw the arms of the Hungarian king.

Unbelieveably, the banquet was not yet over. In came a live peacock with the arms of the queen of France encompassing its neck and the arms of the ladies of the French court draped over its body. In response, all the lords present advanced and pledged to support the cause of the Hungarian king (it was customary to make vows of chivalry on birds). Our account closes with one other important detail. In the middle of the room there was apparently a platform, an estrade, from which singers and an organ provided music during the dinner.


Since the original of this description was in Catalan, I would suggest that the fried oranges are really the cheese balls described in De Nola. Having the ladies sit separately, if indeed they did, would have followed the Eastern European meal tradition.
bunnyjadwiga: (Tapestry Rabbit)
This is the exhibit I put together for the Drew library, which should ( I hope ) get put up tomorrow (11/16):
A Medieval Garden of Botanical Illustrations
http://depts.drew.edu/lib/exhibits/2006/botanical.php

commentary and proofreading welcome.
bunnyjadwiga: (Tapestry Rabbit)
Thomas Hyll, The Gardener's Labyrinth

The Gardiner which would possesse Cucumbers timely and very soone, yea and all the yeare through, ought (after the minde of the Neopolitane [Rutilius?]) in the beginning of the the spring, to fill up old worne baskets and earthen pans without bottomes, with fine sifted earth tempered afore with fat dung, and to moisten somewhat the earth with water, after the seeds bestowed in theses, which done when warme and sunnie daies succeede, or a gentle raine falling, the baskets or pans with the plants, are then to be set abroad, to be strengthened and cherished by the sun and small showres; but the evening approching, these in all the cold season ought to be set under some warm cover or house in the ground, to be defended from the frosts and cold aire, which thus standing under a cover, or in the warme house, moisten gently with water sundry times, and these on such wise handle, untill all the Frosts, Tempests, and cold aire be past, as commonly the same ceaseth not with us, till abut the middest of May.
Read more... )

Thomas Hill, The Gardener's Labyrinth. first published 1577. ed. by Richard Mabey from the 1652 ed. (NY: Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 180.
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
Ok, here's my draft class blurb for this class. Obviously it can't just say "the instructor will wander around the classroom passing around books and babbling randomly about the elements of medieval/renaissance garden design."

Development, design, and elements of medieval and Renaissance gardens. View and discuss depictions of period gardens and layouts. Elements you can incorporate in your own garden or encampment. Enclosures, turfseats, decorations, plants, etc. Handouts available.

Here's links to 2 of the three handouts. I don't post the picture-pages I use because I have not found out the copyright status of the book I took most of them from, Frank Crisp's Medieval Gardens.
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
Our Library's JSTOR subscription includes the journal, Garden History.

"Mediaeval Plantsmanship in England: The Culture of Rosemary." John H. Harvey. Garden History, Vol. 1, No. 1. (Sep., 1972), pp. 14-21.

"Our Heritage: The Dutch Garden, an Introduction to Its History." C. M. Cremers. Garden History, Vol. 2, No. 1. (Autumn, 1973), pp. 10-29.

"Spanish Gardens in Their Historical Background," John H. Harvey. Garden History, Vol. 3, No. 1. (Autumn, 1974), pp. 7-14.

"Gardens in Elizabethan Embroidery," Thomasina Beck. Garden History, Vol. 3, No. 1. (Autumn, 1974), pp. 44-56"

"Medicines and Spices, with Special Reference to Medieval Monastic Accounts," Marjorie Jenkins. Garden History, Vol. 4, No. 3. (Autumn, 1976), pp. 47-49.

"Gilliflower and Carnation," John H. Harvey. Garden History, Vol. 6, No. 1. (Spring, 1978), pp. 46-57.

" The Supply of Plants in the North-West," John H. Harvey. Garden History, Vol. 6, No. 3. (Winter, 1978), pp. 33-37.

"Walls in Half-Circles and Serpentine Walls," Jean O'Neill. Garden History, Vol. 8, No. 3. (Winter, 1980), pp. 69-76.
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
On a mailing list, someone challenged us to list:
What would you pick for herbs [the top 20 herbs] that are very useful for both food and medicine or other nonfood uses and grow well in the US, Canada, and Europe?

So, here's my list: Read more... )
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
My Sallets and Green pottages handout has been updated for this weekend's class at Cooking Thing.
I'm not sure I've improved it all that much, but I've certainly made it LONGER and added citations. Please take a look at it and give me comments if you can.
http://gallowglass.org/jadwiga/SCA/cooking/greens.html
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
Quoting from The Tradescants: Their plants, gardens and museum, 1570-1662 by Mea Allan:
Read more... )
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
Filippo Pizzoni, The Garden: A History in Landscape and Art. (NY: Rizzoli, 1999)

At first glance, this book seems similar to most of the more well-known treatises (Hobhouse, Plants in Garden History; Crisp, Medieval Gardens, Harvey, Mediaeval Gardens; Landsberg, Medieval Garden) but there is a crucial difference. The perspective here is that of a continental author, specificially an Italian, rather than an English gardener. As a result, the author concentrates much more on the Hispano-Arabic styles, and Italian Renaissance styles in gardening. Detailed descriptions of the garden layouts of the Alhambra, Generalife, and others are given. The growth and development of the Mannerist style in the 16th century in Italy, France and Germany is covered in more detail. Emphasis is mostly on the landscape/architectural style of gardening, so most attention is focused on the layouts and statuary of the gardens. The photographs are drool-worthy in most cases. The book covers from the 13th century onward, so only the first 80 or so pages cover the pre-1601 period of study. The author's envisioned layout of the garden described in Pietro de Crescenzi's De Ruralium Commodorum is a unique contribution. The photos of extant gardens and reproductions of illuminations are droolworthy and appear on every page.
bunnyjadwiga: (Default)
Tom Carter, The Victorian Garden. (Salem, NH: Salem House, 1985)

For lovers of Victoriana and keen garden-book browsers, The Victorian Garden is a feast. Not only does it include a wide variety of Victorian images-- depictions of gardens, seed catalog pictures, advertisements, and diagrams decorate each page, and are supplemented with extensive sidebars of text taken from Victorian-period publications. Carter addresses in turn the Kitchen Garden, garden Artifices, Glass use in gardening, Science in the Garden, the Pleasure Ground, Floramania, and the Garden Indoors. Extensive diagrams of 19th century inventions and their use, including such favorites as the cucumber glass and the Wardian case, and sidelights such as the introduction of Garden Gnomes, the history of the Crystal Palance, and the deplorable death of collector David Douglas in a bull-trap, liven a serious history. However, for the serious working gardener the book is less helpful; no plant lists or even simplified explanations of Victorian trends meet the spade-weary browser's eye. Nor are modern photographs or modern reconstructions included. However, it's a fascinating book, and a fit companion to Susan Campbell's Charleston Kedding : a history of kitchen gardening (London : Ebury Press, 1996) with which it should be paired on the shelf.

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